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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in Microsoft Word file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is double-spaced; uses 11-point Times New Roman font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

Author Guidelines

Style guidelines for your article

Word limit

Your word count should be indicated at the end of your article.

Maximum word count is 8000 words, including references.


Please use British spelling throughout, for example ‘colour’ rather than ‘color’. The –ise/-isa convention should also be followed (instead of –ize/iza).

Please use single quotation marks, except where 'a quotation is "within" a quotation'. Longer quotations (longer than 40 words) should simply be indented without quotation marks.

Acronyms should be spelt out in full at first use, with the acronym in brackets, and the acronym alone may be used thereafter.


Kindly use Microsoft Word only, Times New Roman, 11 point font, and double spacing.

Headings and Sub headings

MAIN HEADINGS should be bolded in upper case; second level headings should have sentence case only and underlined and third level headings only sentence case.

Headings and sub headings should not be numbered or bulleted.

References and citations

In-text citations and bibliographies should use the Harvard style (author-date) of referencing.

All authors mentioned in the reference list must be cited chronologically in the main text, and every author cited in the main text must be listed alphabetically in the reference list.

Footnotes should be kept to a minimum, and only used where absolutely necessary.

For the sake of consistency, please use the following Harvard style guide for references and citations (please take note of the punctuation):

Citing an author of a book

Smith and Blackwell (2017:132) describe the situation as ‘untenable’ [year of publication: page number if quoted] or Smith and Blackwell (2017) if there is no direct quotation].

Or: The situation was described as ‘untenable’ (Smith & Blackwell, 2017:132).

In the reference list, the book will be listed as follows:

Smith, SS & Blackwell, W. 2017. Poverty below the breadline. Stellenbosch: SunMedia [Surname, initials; year; title in italics; place of publication: name of publisher].

If the citation refers to a chapter in an edited book, it should be listed in the references as:

McMillan, JW. 2017. Beyond poverty: an analysis. In Smith, SS & Blackwell, W. (Eds) Poverty below the breadline. Stellenbosch: SunMedia: 24-32 [Surname, initials; year; title; name of editors; title of book; place of publication: name of publisher; page reference of the chapter].

Please note that editor(s) must also be acknowledged separately in the list of references.

Citing an author of an article in a publication

If the citation refers to an article in a publication, it should be listed as follows:

Smith, SS & Blackwell, W. 2017. Poverty below the breadline: coming to grips. Journal for Economic Development, 3(7): 112 – 121 [surname and initials; year; title of article; title of journal in italics, edition number (volume number): page reference].

  • Cited from an unpublished doctoral thesis:

Smith, SS. 2017. Poverty below the breadline. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Stellenbosch: University of Stellenbosch (the title of an unpublished thesis is not italicised).

  • Cited from a published conference paper:

Smith, SS. 2017. Poverty below the breadline. In Economic development for sustainable living. Johannesburg: University of Johannesburg: 57-65.

  • Cited from an unpublished conference paper:

Smith, SS. 2017. Poverty below the breadline. Unpublished paper delivered at the second African Regional Conference on Economic development for sustainable living. 10 June, Johannesburg.

Citing from an electronic source

  • Author unknown:

Poverty below the breadline. 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.economicsdirect.com/economy [2017, August 15]. Please remove hyperlink.

  • Author known:

Smith, SS. Poverty below the breadline. 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.economicsdirect.com/economy [2017, August 15]. Please remove hyperlink.


  1. Author details. All authors’ full names, affiliations, postal addresses, telephone numbers and email addresses on a separate title page that accompanies your article. Please repeat the title in your article.
  2. An Abstractof no more than 200 words.
  3. 4 to 6 Keywords should follow your abstract.
  4. Indicate any funding details. Please acknowledge any funding or grant awards that made your research possible. 
  5. Figures should be of a high quality and be saved as TIFF, JPEG or .eps format, and attached as annexures to the article. Images or figures not the property of the author should have the necessary permission to be used.
  6. Tables should be easy to read and interpret.
  7. Turnitin Report: You should obtain any necessary permission to use third party material in your article as copyright permission is your responsibility. The article should be your original work and should be accompanied by a Turnitin report that indicates the extent of your article’s similarity index.

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