Article Style guidelines

Please anonymise your article before submitting it as follows:
FILE → Options → Personalise your copy of Microsoft Office. Change your details to anonymous or author. You may need to copy and paste your article onto a new blank page that has been anonymised.

Word limit
Your word count should be indicated at the end of your article.

Maximum word count is 8000 words, including references.

Spelling and punctuation
Please use British spelling throughout, for example ‘colour’ rather than ‘color’. The –ise/-isa convention should also be followed (instead of –ize/iza).

Please use single quotation marks, except where 'a quotation is "within" a quotation'. Longer quotations (longer than 40 words) should simply be indented without quotation marks.

Acronyms should be spelt out in full at first use, with the acronym in brackets, and the acronym alone may be used thereafter.

Kindly use Microsoft Word, Times New Roman, 11 point font, and double spacing.

Headings and Sub headings
MAIN HEADINGS should be bolded in upper case; second-level headings should have sentence case only and underlined and third-level headings only sentence case (and not to be underlined).

Headings and sub headings should not be numbered or bulleted.

References and citations
For the sake of consistency, please use the following Harvard style guide for references and citations (please take note of the punctuation):

Citing an author or authors of a book
Smith and Blackwell (2017:132) describe the situation as ‘untenable’ [year of publication: page number if quoted] or Smith and Blackwell (2017) if there is no direct quotation].

Or: The situation was described as ‘untenable’ (Smith & Blackwell, 2017:132). There is no space between the year and page reference.

PLEASE NOTE: when the author(s) is listed in brackets, the ‘and’ changes to an ampersand (&).

In the reference list, the book will be listed as follows:
Smith, SS & Blackwell, W. 2017. Poverty below the breadline. Stellenbosch: SunMedia [Surname, initials; year; title in italics; place of publication (where possible): name of publisher].

Initials do not have fullstops or spaces between them and the ampersand (&) is used instead of ‘and’.

If the citation refers to a chapter in an edited book, the author of the chapter is listed as follows in the reference list:
McMillan, JW. 2017. Beyond poverty: an analysis. In Smith, SS & Blackwell, W (Eds). Poverty below the breadline. Stellenbosch: SunMedia:24-32 [Surname, initials; year; title; name of editors; title of book; place of publication: name of publisher; page reference of the chapter].

Please note that editor(s) must also be acknowledged separately in the list of references. Smith & Blackwell in the above example should therefore appear in the reference list too.

Citing an author of an article in a publication
If the citation refers to an article in a publication, it should be listed as follows:
Smith, SS & Blackwell, W. 2017. Poverty below the breadline: Coming to grips. Journal for Economic Development, 3(7):112 – 121 [surname and initials; year; title of article; title of journal in italics, edition number (volume number): no space page reference].

Citing a list of authors
All authors mentioned in the reference list must be cited chronologically (the earlier year comes first and the latest, last) in the article and every author cited in the article must be listed alphabetically in the reference list.

For example, if there are more than one author cited, they must be listed according to the date in the citation: (Bell, 2009; De Lange & Finch, 2011; Mountford, 2013; Foster, Brown & Steward, 2017). Use the semi-colon to divide the list of authors in citations. If there are four or more authors, name the first author and then use et al. All the authors beyond three (four and more), do not have to be listed the first time they are cited.

In a reference list at the end, they must be listed according to the alphabet:
Bell, CC. 2009.
De Lange, R & Finch, EE. 2011.
Foster, Brown & Stewart. 2017.
Mountford, LJ. 2013.

References of other printed sources
• Cited from an unpublished doctoral thesis:
Smith, SS. 2017. Poverty below the breadline. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Stellenbosch: University of Stellenbosch (the title of an unpublished thesis is not italicised).

If the thesis/dissertation has been published, then the title is italicised.

• Cited from a published conference paper:
Smith, SS. 2017. Poverty below the breadline. A paper delivered at a conference titled Economic development for sustainable living. Johannesburg: University of Johannesburg: 57-65.

• Cited from an unpublished conference paper:
Smith, SS. 2017. Poverty below the breadline. Unpublished paper delivered at the second African Regional Conference on Economic development for sustainable living. 10 June, Johannesburg.

Citing from an electronic source
• Author unknown:
Poverty below the breadline. 2017. [Online]. Available: <> [Accessed: 15 August 2017].

Please remove hyperlink and ensure that the retrieval date is recorded.

• Author known:
Smith, SS. Poverty below the breadline. 2017. [Online]. Available: <> [Accessed: 15 August, 2017].

Please remove hyperlink.

Footnotes should be kept to a minimum and only used where absolutely necessary.

Figures and tables
1. Figures should be of a high quality and be saved as TIFF, JPEG or .eps format and placed where they should be in the article. Images or figures not the property of the author should have the necessary permission to be used. Please do not attach these separately. Captions for figures should appear below the figure.

2. Tables should be easy to read and interpret. The same requirements for figures apply. Captions for tables should appear above tables.

3. Author details. All authors’ full names (main author first), affiliations, telephone numbers and email addresses on a separate title page that accompanies your article. Please repeat the title in your article which should not contain your name(s).

4. An Abstract of no more than 200 words.

5. Four to six Keywords should follow your abstract, in lower case and separated by a semi-colon.

6. Indicate any funding details. Please acknowledge any funding or grant awards that made your research possible.